'Intellectual property' is a broad term that describes the laws which protect products of people’s imagination and creativity.
The main forms of intellectual property include:
- circuit layouts
- new plant varieties
- confidential information.
The Intellectual Property Regulations provides the framework for management of intellectual property at Victoria University.
Under the Australian Copyright Act 1968, the owner of literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works, sound recordings, films and broadcasts have exclusive rights which allow them to:
- reproduce/copy a work
- perform in public
- communicate the work to the public via electronic means – including making it available online or sending via email.
Victoria University’s Copyright Material (use of) Policy provides a framework for university staff and students for using third party copyright material for educational and research purposes.
The Library offers access to guides and information about referencing and the use of copyright materials, as well as references tools and programs.
More information about aspects of copyright is available at the Australian Copyright Council’s website. They have Information Sheets available on a range of copyright related topics including using the internet, maps and charts, moral rights, research or study and YouTube. Information Sheets can be browsed alphabetically by topic through the Copyright Council's A to Z list.
Copying for research and study
You can use copyright material for research or study provided the use is “fair”. The Australian Copyright Act sets out two situations which can be considered fair and also gives some guidelines for this purpose.
It is “fair” to copy a reasonable portion of text or notated music. If you are copying from a print or hard copy edition of 10 or more pages you can copy:
- 10% of the number of pages; or
- Or one chapter
For text in electronic form you can copy:
- 10% of the number of words; or
- One chapter
The Act also provides some important guidelines for you to work out if your use is “fair”. Check the following points:
- The purpose and character of the use; for example, is it for a set course of study?
- The nature of the work; is the work of high skill or mundane work?
- Can the work be purchased within a reasonable time at an ordinary price; it is probably unfair to photocopy a large portion of a work if it can be purchased.
- The effect of the use on the potential market for, or value of the work; making a copy would be unfair if the publisher sells or licenses copies.
- If only part of the work is used, is the amount a ‘substantial portion’? For example, you may want to copy a few lines of a short poem.
- Copy a whole article from a newspaper or magazine
- Copy a photograph from a newspaper or magazine as long as it is not separately available.
- Copy from the Internet for research (unless there are restricting terms and conditions) and save the material to disk or print.
- Email copies of anything you have downloaded from the Internet to share with others.
There are ‘fair dealing’ exceptions for copyright if you are using the work for study and research or criticism and parody but the use must be “fair”. For more information about use of works under ‘fair dealing’ an Information Sheet is available from the Australian Copyrights Council's website Australian Copyrights Council's A to Z list under "F" for fair dealing.
In the United States there is an exception called ‘fair use’ but this is not available in Australia although it is under consideration by the Australian government.
The Copyright handbook for researchers will provide some basic copyright information for students preparing a thesis or writing an article for publication. The handbook can also provide publishing information for staff who may wish to know more about dealing with ownership, publisher licences and data management.
Music and copyright
For information about music and copyright go to the Apra/Amcos page on Music and Universities.
Duration of copyright
Generally copyright in a work lasts for the life of the author and 70 years but certain works will have different periods of duration. For more information an Information Sheet is available from the Australian Copyrights Council's website Australian Copyrights Council's to Z list under "D" for duration.
You may freely use material which is no longer in copyright or you may seek to use material which is under a Creative Commons licence and available for use under simple terms with acknowledgement.
Using the Internet
Material accessed online via YouTube or other social media is also governed by Copyright laws similar to anything you may use in hard copy.
When using text, images or audio visual material from media such as YouTube always check the terms and conditions of use before downloading or sharing.
YouTube provides guidelines for users and you can also check the Australian Copyright Council site for their Info Sheet on YouTube and Internet use.
Students with a print disability
If you have a disability, Accessibility Services can provide you with a range of support measures and technical resources provided by the Library and other areas of VU.
The Australian Copyright Council has a Fact Sheet “Disabilities: Copyright Provisions” which stresses that the Copyright Act allows “organisations assisting people with a print disability or an intellectual disability to use copyright material without permission in some circumstances.
Under section 200AB the hearing impaired can access a captioned version of a video but according to the terms of the Act, the person would also need to establish that the use did not conflict with normal exploitation of the material and that the use did not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the copyright owner. (ACC, fact sheet, Disabilities: Copyright Provisions).
The Australian Copyright Council Information Sheet on the Copyright Provisions for people with a disability can be found by browsing their A to Z list under "D" for Disability.
Copyright for Learning & Teaching
Information about the use of copyright material by staff for certain educational purposes is available in the Copyright for Teaching at VU guide.
Copying for commercial use
"Commercial Use" can be any activity that is:
- conducted externally of the VU premises or network, or
- not part of a Victoria University higher education or TAFE course, or
- not part of a Victoria University student/staff research or study, or
- conducted for a profit.
The following are examples of "commercial" activities:
- University promotion and marketing (for example print, radio or TV Media)
- University administration (for example internal newsletters)
- any activity that makes a profit (for example publishing a book or a profit making event).
Teaching, research and study are examples of "non commercial" activities.
What can I copy?
If your activity is commercial, you cannot rely on VU's Educational or Statutory Licences or the Copyright Act's Fair Dealing exceptions.
If your commercial material contains third party material, you'll need to get the permission from the copyright owner.
For example, if your VU marketing poster contains a photograph you downloaded from the internet, then you'll need to gain permission from the copyright owner of that photograph unless it is out of copyright or in the public domain.
What can I copy without permission?
There are several options available that don't require the copyright holder's permission:
- you can copy an insubstantial portion
- you can use material protected by a suitable Creative Commons licence
- you can use material that is owned by VU
- you can use material that is no longer protected by copyright.
If the third party material is protected by copyright, and you need to use it as part of your commercial activity (as defined above), then you may seek copyright permission from the copyright holder.
The VU Copyright Officer is available from Monday to Wednesday and can be contacted by email (firstname.lastname@example.org) or phone 9919 5958.