The bitter effect of sugar: Bone-muscle interaction in patients with type 2 diabetes & the effect of exercise

Join our study

If you are over 18 years of age with diagnosed type 2 diabetes and would like to receive free health and fitness information and exercise training, please register your interest to join our project.

In this study we will explore the pathways by which bone, muscle and the endocrine system communicate and how exercise can improve hormonal health, insulin sensitivity, muscle and bone health in patients with type 2 diabetes.

The project is conducted at the Institute for Health and Sport (IHES) at Victoria University.

Participants will receive information about their fitness and health and will be reimbursed for their time with a gift card (up to $150 in value).

Type 2 diabetes & exercise

The study will explore how high-intensity interval training (HIIT) affects hormones produced by bone as well as sex hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Patients with T2D typically have lower muscle and bone health as well as lower sex hormone levels compared to individuals without T2D, and this can affect health and quality of life.

Understanding how the systems in the body communicate and the effects of exercise can lead to better treatment for T2D as well as improve health and quality of life.

All participants will undertake fitness and health testing. They will then be randomised to either exercise training (three sessions of HIIT per week for ten weeks) or control (usual activities for ten weeks). Participants in the control group are offered exercise training after completing the study as a courtesy.

Participants will undergo the following assessments free of charge:

  • body composition scan (bone and lean mass) using DXA
  • blood and urine sampling
  • optional muscle and fat sampling before and after exercise
  • exercise testing
  • lifestyle questionnaires focusing on nutrition, mood and physical activity
  • measure of vascular function.


Inclusion criteria:

  • females and males aged 18 and over with type 2 diabetes (no upper age limit).

Main exclusion criteria:

  • treatment for osteoporosis or long-term anti-inflammatory treatment
  • current smoker or quit in the past 12 months
  • hormone replacement therapy
  • Body mass index (BMI) > 40 kg/m2.

Please note, additional inclusion/exclusion criteria may apply.

Contact details

For more information, contact: