This unit focuses on the development and limitations of models in explaining of physical phenomena. A field model of electromagnetism is applied to the generation of electricity, and the development of models that explain the complex interactions of light and matter are considered. The detailed studies provide examples of innovative technologies used for research and communication. Students continue to undertake extensive and regular experimental work in the laboratory. They design and carry out investigations, collect accurate data, evaluate the quality of data and measurement processes and make conclusions based on the data. This unit is studied in Year 12.