In this unit, theoretical concepts behind post-colonial, decolonising and Indigenous responses to formalised teaching and learning. A historical overview of colonial education provides students with critical language and concepts to make connections to national empire building and the production of colonial identities in compulsory schooling, early childhood education, vocational, adult and higher education. Students investigate how previous colonies of the European empires have sought independence, with focus on post-colonial and Indigenous theorists' descriptions of challenges in decolonising teaching and learning. Considering the key issues of self-determination, sovereignty and the rights of colonised and Indigenous peoples in education, students explore the production of pedagogical and curriculum materials that have embedded Indigenous and post-colonial ways of knowing and knowledge. The contribution of Indigenous and Post-Colonial theorists provides alternative standpoints and critiques of learning and teaching in a 'global' 21st century.